Wednesday, April 05, 2017
How To Define A Safe Distance At Nuclear Explosion
A wind blast is an area of an air abrupt contraction spreading around and above from the center of the explosion with hypersonic speed. Having a high level of energy, an atomic blast is capable of defeating people, destroying buildings, equipment, military hardware and other objects at significant distances from the place of explosion.
Nature of pressure changing in the space point when an air blast goes through. As soon as an atomic blast reaches a certain space point, pressure and temperature become higher shortly, air begins to spread in an atomic blast direction. With time passing by, the pressure becomes lower and becomes equal to atmospheric. Further pressure decreasing causes exhaustion. At the time, air begins moving in the direction of the explosion. Usually, the action time of an atomic blast in phase of exhaustion is not taken into consideration as long as its importance is rather secondary.
Apart from the specified parameters, an atomic blast is characterized with front propagation velocity, air speed in pressure shock front, temperature of air in pressure shock front, ram air pressure in pressure shock front.
At surface burst, an atomic blast is shaped as hemisphere with center in the spot of explosion of nuclear weapon.
At air blast, reaching out the surface of earth, bounced back off it. the shape of the front is similar to hemisphere with the center in the spot, which is a mirror reflection of the explosion spot related to the surface of earth. Damage is caused by direct and indirect effect of air blast. Affecting exposed personnel, an atomic blast is able to damage like practice shell or air bomb would do at significantly bigger distances. Character and degree of damage depend on differential pressure, a position of a person at the very moment and its protection level. Depending upon differential pressure of a trauma under the impact of the blast, the waves are subdivided into light, average and heavy.
Damage of equipment and military machines after repulsion (on impact with soil) can be more significant than from direct effect of an atomic effect. Tanks receive weak damage such as antenna, headlights and other outdoor equipment breakdown. Weak damage of the tanks happens under a pressure of 0;3—0,5 kgf/cm2 while total damage under a pressure of 10—20 kgf/cm2. Pieces of artillery get average damage under a pressure of 0,4— 0,7 kgf/cm2 and are totally destroyed under a pressure of 2— 10 kgf/cm2. The least tolerant of the atomic blast are planes, helicopters and rockets. They can go to rack and ruin under a pressure of 0,1—0,3 kgf/cm2.
At explosion of neuronal ammunition, equipment and military machines, which have electronic facilities and relay ladder logic system, go to rack and ruin as a result of transistors, diodes and other elements under the impact of radiation damage.
If to take into account that at the air blast the safe distance for unshielded man is /?, km ( 2.5), personnel assets located in fortifications will not be damaged over a distance 2/3/?. Covering trench decreases the radius of damage effect in 2 times and dug-out shelter in 3 times. Military personnel located underground at a depth of more than 10 meters is not affected even if the place underground is in the epicenter of an atomic blast.
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